The Power of the Round Table (AZ PowerShell)

Last night we had some technical difficulties with our user group and getting the broadcast and the speaker setup and going.    So we had to make up something good to talk about in the user group.

So what we ended up doing was what I like to call a round table.  In this discussion everyone relayed some of their successes with PowerShell.   This article is just a “glimpse’ of some of the tidbits I was able to capture during the meeting.

If you are anything like me you like things that you can do to help you remember a command you last typed or you like to bring back a command from history and modify it slightly and try again.   One of the users last night showed us this wonder full trick in powershell the #(tab).

The best way to show this feature is to tell you to use the Get-History cmdlet in PowerShell to show your last few Items you’ve typed.


PSGit:\> Get-History

Id CommandLine
-- -----------
1 $env:COMPUTERNAME
2 h
3 $env:PSModulePath
4 $env:PSModulePath -split ';'
5 h
6 ($env:PSModulePath -split ';')[0]
7 ($env:PSModulePath -split ';')[1]
8 ($env:PSModulePath -split ';')[2]
9 h
10 get-process
11 h
12 get-service

I only show the history so there is context around what this little gem of a tip does. if I type #PS and then hit tab I’ll get each item from history that contains PS.  Demonstrated below:

poundtip

Now for another tip that I found useful as well.  Have you ever wanted  to create a variable and have the output of the variable on the screen as well.  This can be done with Tee-Object but there is a much shorter method that one of the users in the AZ Powershell User group demonstrated:


PSGit:\> ($var = ($env:PSModulePath -split ';')[0])
C:\Users\crshn\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Modules

PSGit:\> $var
C:\Users\crshn\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Modules

Simply enclose your command in parens and you get the output in your variable and to your screen.

We had a great discussion about this post Merging hashtables. This spurned a discussion on a very cool means to copy your object intact to another object.  The participant in the user group informed me that he’d share his code with me.  When I receive it I’ll add to this Post.

Lastly another user demonstrated how they use data from the perfmon reliability counters that every windows machine has.   you can view those reliability counters through a simple command at your prompt:

perfmon /rel

Turns out these counters are part of WMI and you could drill into these to help you with diagnosing problems in your infrastructure through Powershell and WMI.

Here is a post from Richard Siddaway on how he used some of the items in the class that this provides:

https://richardspowershellblog.wordpress.com/2015/09/29/win32_reliabilityrecords-class

It was a very fun Users group. If you are online or in Phoenix area Drop by and we’ll entertain you with a speaker or any of the great folks that attend.

 

Until then

Keep Scripting

 

Thom

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UCS Director – Creating a Custom Workflow Task for PowerShell

If you are familiar with UCS director then you know you can create custom workfow tasks for anything that is JavaScript based.  I haven’t seen a means to do this for a PowerShell Script.  This is how I figured this out.

Note: Without the help of my co-worker  Don Reilly the task would have never worked.  He was able to find the correct methods to call for Director. 

First thing I did was to clone the in box PowerShell Task.

2018-01-05 09_11_59-Clipboard

That brings up a dialog to allow you to choose to clone from tasks that are already there

2018-01-05 09_15_01

Now that I have that cloned I can look at the contents of the javascript to find out how to call my script.   The script I chose to run is one from another community member.  His script gets the last error from the PowerShell agent.  I took his script and saved it to my PSA server in d:\director\powershell\director folder and am using this custom work flow task to call this when there is an error.

On to the rest of the setup.   Once  I cloned the script and then put in the code that I needed with the necessary input’s from the director custom task.  I found that the task wouldn’t run.  Researching further I found that when you clone the task the PowerShell Task itself is running differently than any other custom task.  You can see this behaviour in the screen shot below:

2018-01-05 09_23_22

So I then had to goto my resident expert Don Reilly who helped me with discovering the right controller to add to my custom workflow task.  I’ll step through in pictures what my work flow in UCS Director 6.5 looks like:

2018-01-05 09_26_58

2018-01-05 09_28_50

The input for tasks has one property that i chose to just enter in its values.  In the LOV values for OutputFormat I entered in the values of XML and JSON.

2018-01-05 09_28_50-2

2018-01-05 09_28_50-3

2018-01-05 09_28_50-4

2018-01-05 09_28_50-5

The method added for the controller is before martial with the following calls to the clopia libs:


importPackage(com.cloupia.feature.powershellAgentController.wftasks);

var agentPairs = PSAgentTabularLOV.getAllPowerShellAgentsLOV();
page.setEmbeddedLOVs(id + ".psAgent", agentPairs);

Here is what my script code looks like in the custom task (Powershell is highlighted in blue in the Java script).

For Clarity here is the script$s = “D:\Director\powershell\director\Get-LastUCSDError.ps1”; if(test-path $s){. $s;}else{“Cannot find $s check path on PowerShell Agent Server”}


// Auto generated to code invoke following task
// Task Label:  Execute Native PowerShell Command
// Task Name:  Execute Native PowerShell Command
importPackage(java.lang);
importPackage(java.util);
importPackage(com.cloupia.model.cIM);
importPackage(com.cloupia.service.cIM.inframgr);

function Execute_Native_PowerShell_Command()
{
    var task = ctxt.createInnerTaskContext("Execute Native PowerShell Command");

    // Input 'Label', mandatory=true, mappableTo=
    task.setInput("Label", input.label);

    // Input 'PowerShell Agent', mandatory=true, mappableTo=gen_text_input
    task.setInput("PowerShell Agent", input.psAgent);

    // Input 'Hide Input in PSA, inframgr logs', mandatory=false, mappableTo=gen_text_input
    task.setInput("Hide Input in PSA, inframgr logs", input.isHideInput);

    // Input 'Hide Output in PSA, inframgr logs', mandatory=false, mappableTo=gen_text_input
    task.setInput("Hide Output in PSA, inframgr logs", input.isHideOutput);

    // Input 'Commands/Script', mandatory=true, mappableTo=gen_text_input
    //Changed the command to be hard coded to a script on the
	var command = '$s = "D:\\Director\\powershell\\director\\Get-LastUCSDError.ps1"; if(test-path $s){. $s;}else{"Cannot find $s check path on PowerShell Agent Server"}';
    task.setInput("Commands/Script", command);

    // Input 'Commands/Rollback Script', mandatory=false, mappableTo=gen_text_input
    task.setInput("Commands/Rollback Script", '');

    // Input 'Output Format', mandatory=false, mappableTo=
    task.setInput("Output Format", input.outputFormat);

    // Input 'Depth', mandatory=true, mappableTo=
    task.setInput("Depth", input.depth);

    // Input 'Maximum Wait Time', mandatory=true, mappableTo=
    task.setInput("Maximum Wait Time", input.maxWaitTimeMinutes);

    // Now execute the task. If the task fails, then it will throw an exception
    task.execute();

    // Now copy the outputs of the inner task for use by subsequent tasks
    // Type of following output: gen_text_input
    output.POWERSHELL_NATIVE_COMMAND_RESULT = task.getOutput("POWERSHELL_NATIVE_COMMAND_RESULT");
}

// Invoke the task
Execute_Native_PowerShell_Command();
<span 				data-mce-type="bookmark" 				id="mce_SELREST_start" 				data-mce-style="overflow:hidden;line-height:0" 				style="overflow:hidden;line-height:0" 			></span>

Monitor your Connection to Internet – PowerShell

Recently I’ve been having issues with my internet connection.  So I decided to Write a script to monitor my connection and then record how long my connection drops to my Internet Service Provider.

To start this process out I had to make sure that I could ping the gateway of the adapter that I’m using to connect to the internet with.  So first step was to find my IP address and gateway.  I was able to do this using Get-NetIPConfiguration.


Get-NetIPConfiguration -InterfaceAlias 'vEthernet (ExternalSwitch)'

InterfaceAlias : vEthernet (ExternalSwitch)
InterfaceIndex : 11
InterfaceDescription : Hyper-V Virtual Ethernet Adapter
NetProfile.Name : Conn
IPv4Address : 192.168.1.12
IPv6DefaultGateway :
IPv4DefaultGateway : 192.168.1.1
DNSServer : 192.168.1.1

This told me my address and my Gateway.  So I put them in a variable:


$IP = (Get-NetIPConfiguration -InterfaceAlias 'vEthernet (ExternalSwitch)').ipv4address.ipaddress

$gateway = (Get-NetIPConfiguration).ipv4defaultGateway.nexthop

Now that I have them in a variable I can begin the process of  Pinging both addresses.  I chose to add this to a Function:


function Start-ConnectionMonitoring
{
param($isp, $gateway, $Logfile,[int]$Delay = 10,[Ipaddress] $adapter, [switch]$ispPopup, [switch]$gateWayPopup)
$spacer = '--------------------------'
while($true)
{
if(!(Test-Connection $gateway -source $adapter -count 1 -ea Ignore))
{
get-date | Add-Content -path $Logfile
"$gateWay Connection Failure" |add-content -Path $Logfile
$outagetime = Start-ContinousPing -address $gateway -adapter $adapter -Delay $Delay
"Total Outage time in Seconds: $outageTime" | Add-Content -path $Logfile
if($gateWayPopup)
{
New-PopupMessage -location $gateway -outagetime $outagetime
}
$spacer |add-content -Path $Logfile
}
if((!(Test-Connection $isp -Source $adapter -count 1 -ea Ignore)) -and (Test-Connection $gateway -count 1 -ea Ignore))
{
get-date | Add-Content -path $Logfile
"$isp Connection Failure" | Add-Content -Path $Logfile
$outagetime = Start-ContinousPing -address $isp -adapter $adapter -Delay $Delay
"Total Outage time in Seconds: $outageTime" | Add-Content -path $Logfile
if($ispPopup)
{
New-PopupMessage -location $isp -outagetime $outagetime
}
$spacer|add-content -Path $Logfile
}
Start-Sleep -Seconds $Delay
}
}

In this function I have two Nested functions.  I’ll explain the first function(Start-ContinousPing).  If the connection/ping to either the local router ($gateway) or ($isp) fails then we call this function.  This puts the Ping/connection check in a loop until the connectivity comes back. At the end of the non connectivity the function passes back the seconds that we couldn’t reach that resource.

The Second function (New-PopupMessage) serves as a means to allow the user to choose whether or not they get a popup when there is  a period of no activity.  If the switch -ispPopup is set then when we have no connectivity to the ISP resource we’ll get a popup indicating no connection and how long the connection was out.

Finally we’ll look at the contents of the log:

12/27/2017 4:59:29 PM
192.168.1.1 Connection Failure
Total Outage time in Seconds: 0.0380652
————————–
12/27/2017 4:59:33 PM
http://www.cox.com Connection Failure
Total Outage time in Seconds: 0.0353273
————————–

As you can see the connection to my first gate way was out of .038 seconds. Also the connection to my provider cox.com was out for .035 seconds.

The entire script is located in this gist:

I Hope this helps someone.

 

Until then

Keep Scripting

 

Thom

Merging hashtables

Hash tables in PowerShell are very useful and can be used for a bunch of things.   Recently I had to use some code I found on StackOverflow to Merge hash tables. This post is about my experience and the really cool piece of code that iRon posted on StackOverFlow.

First I need to login to azure and find my application:


add-azurermaccount

get-azurermresource

I see my resource in the Get-azureRmresource so now I know that I can query for it’s app settings using this command:


$myapp = Get-AzureRmWebAppSlot -resourcegroupname myresourcegroup -name myresourcename -slot production

This produces and object that contains all my web application settings in azure for my app in question.  The item i want to work on is the .siteconfig.AppSettings

 

This portion of the object will have the properties of the appsettings in the azure blade as shown below:

Applicationsettings


PS C:\Users\me&amp;gt; $myApp.siteconfig.AppSettings

Name Value


WEBSITE_NODE_DEFAULT_VERSION 6.9.1

Now that I have the current version of what is in my application I now need to see what to do to put new settings in place and not wipe out any existing settings.  The cmdlet to do the addition is Set-AzureRmWebAppSlot.  After looking through the help I can see that I have a parameter that  I can pass for the settings i want called -appSettings.  It like most of the other settings require a hash table:  [[-AppSettings] <Hashtable>]

So The $myApp.SiteConfig.Appsettings is a list:


$appSettings = $Myapp.siteconfig.appsettings
&amp;nbsp;$appsettings -is [pscustomobject]
False
&amp;nbsp;$appsettings.gettype()

IsPublic IsSerial Name BaseType
-------- -------- ---- --------
True True List`1 System.Object

$appsettings -is [hashtable]
False

This means I need to convert my object from List`1 to a hashtable so I’ll iterate through it and create a hashtable:


$appSettingsHash = @{}
&amp;nbsp;foreach($k in $appSettings) { $appSettingsHash[$k.name] = $k.value }
&amp;nbsp;$appsettingshash

Name Value
---- -----
WEBSITE_NODE_DEFAULT_VERSION 6.9.1

&amp;nbsp;$appsettingshash -is [hashtable]

True

Ok now that I have my current settings in a hashtable I need to now work with entries that I want to add to a hashtable and then post it.


$appSettings ='{"AppSettings:testkey1": "45test","AppSettings:TestId": "This is a Test Key 28"}'

$newAppSettings = $appSettings | convertfrom-json 

$newAppSettingsHash = @{}
 $newAppSettings.psobject.properties | ForEach-Object { $newAppSettingsHash[$_.Name] = $_.Value }

$newappsettingsHash -is [hashtable]
True

This is where the magic of iRon‘s script comes into play. Since  I need to use this in a deployment from TFS I created the hashtable in Json Format first and then convert the Json format to a [hashtable]. Then I call iRon’s Script with the $newappSettingsHash and the $appsettingsHash. Now I have a merged hashtable that I can now update my application with.


Function Merge-Hashtables([ScriptBlock]$Operator) {
$Output = @{}
ForEach ($Hashtable in $Input) {
If ($Hashtable -is [Hashtable]) {
ForEach ($Key in $Hashtable.Keys) {$Output.$Key = If ($Output.ContainsKey($Key)) {@($Output.$Key) + $Hashtable.$Key} Else {$Hashtable.$Key}}
}
}
If ($Operator) {ForEach ($Key in @($Output.Keys)) {$_ = @($Output.$Key); $Output.$Key = Invoke-Command $Operator}}
$Output
}

$hashtable = $newAppSettingsHash, $appSettingsHash | Merge-Hashtables {$_[0]} 
$results = Set-AzureRmWebAppSlot -AppSettings $hashtable -name $website -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroup -slot $slot
$r = $results.SiteConfig.AppSettings
Write-Output $r

The really cool thing about the Merging of the hashtables function is that you can merge more than 2 hash tables.  See this comment from iRon about how it works:

 

hashtablemerge

Full code for this merge hashtable function against a azure application is below:

I hope that when you need to merge hashtables this article makes it a  bit easier for you.

 

Until then keep scripting

 

thom

Uploading files to Azure Applications (kudu)

I needed to copy some content to my azure application that the Build and deploy that I constructed for it wouldn’t need to do every deploy every time.   So my quest began on how do I upload files to an Azure application.  The most common and recognized way of uploading files to azure applications is through webdeploy. I didn’t think I needed to package up and use webdeploy so I sought out a way to do this with PowerShell.  This post is about that pursuit.

Thanks to this article most of the work was done Copy files to Azure Web App with PowerShell and Kudu API.  All I needed to do was to put a loop around my file upload and use Octavie van Haaften‘s scripts.

So I started with get-childitem -recurse “$downloadFolder\content”.  Now that I had my content in a variable called $files I can put this in a foreach loop and use Octavie van Haaften‘s  Upload-FileToWebapp.

During the upload of the files I need to determine if the file from my local disk is a File or Directory.  I used the following classes to determine this:

[System.IO.DirectoryInfo] &  [System.IO.FileInfo]

If the item was a directory then I had to make the upload location match the location on disk.  I did this through a little bit of replacement logic and used the $kudufolder as my variable to use for the upload function from Octavie.


$kudufolder = ((($file.FullName).Replace($uploadfrom,'Content'))`
.replace('\','/')).trimstart('/')
$kudufolder = "$kudufolder/"
Upload-FileToWebApp -resourceGroupName myresourcegroup`
-webAppName mywebapp -kuduPath $kudufolder

The same holds true for the upload of a file. The only difference between the file and the directory is the /. When you are uploading/creating a directory / to kudu means a directory.


$kudufile = ((($file.FullName).Replace($uploadfrom,'Content'))`
.replace('\','/')).trimstart('/')
Upload-FileToWebApp -resourceGroupName myresourcegroup`
-webAppName mywebapp -localPath $file.FullName -kuduPath $kudufile

Here is the full script in the foreach loop with each check for a directory or file.


$downloadfolder = 'c:\temp\myAzureStorage'

$uploadfrom = "$downloadfolder\Content"

$files = get-childitem -Recurse "$downloadfolder\Content"

foreach($file in $files)
{
if($file -is [System.IO.DirectoryInfo])
{
$kudufolder = ((($file.FullName).Replace($uploadfrom,'Content')).replace('\','/')).trimstart('/')
$kudufolder = "$kudufolder/"
Upload-FileToWebApp -resourceGroupName myresourcegroup -webAppName mywebapp -kuduPath $kudufolder
}
elseif($file -is [System.IO.FileInfo])
{
$kudufile = ((($file.FullName).Replace($uploadfrom,'Content')).replace('\','/')).trimstart('/')
Upload-FileToWebApp -resourceGroupName myresourcegroup -webAppName mywebapp -localPath $file.FullName -kuduPath $kudufile
}
}


I hope this helps someone
Until then keep Scripting
Thom


 

Azure File Storage Download

If you have an Azure account and you want to download files out of azure storage either individually or a whole folder. This script is about how I was able to do this with Powershell.

First we need to login to azure and get a storage context.  The StorageContext will require a key.


Add-AzureRmAccount -credential (get-credential) -tenantid yourid

$key = (get-azurermstorageAccountkey -resourcegroupname myresourcegroup -name mystorageaccountName | where-object{$Psitem.keyname -eq 'key1'}).value

$storageContext = New-AzureStorageContext -StorageAccountName "mystorage" -StorageAccountKey $key

Now that we have the storage context and key. Now we need to find the files that are in our AZURE File storage.


$content = get-azurestoragefile -storageaccountname "mystorage" -storageAccountkey $key

If we look at the contents of our $content variable we should see something similar to this:

files

Now that we have the content in a variable now we can begin the process of figuring out how to download each file. To start with to download a single file we need to use get-azureStorageFileContent 


$content = get-azurestoragefile -storageaccountname "mystorage" `

-storageAccountkey $key

get-azurestoragefilecontent -sharename "myshare" -path $content[0].uri.localpath `

-replace "$($content[0].share.name)/",'' -destination "c:\temp\" -context $storageContext

After much trial and error I found that in the object you get back from Azure there are two different Object types that you must check for:

Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.File.FileDirectoryProperties

and the other type is:

Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.File.CloudFile

By the class names you can see that one is a file and the other is a Directory.  With that in mind now I can put this in a function that recursively calls itself to get all the contents.


function Get-AzureFiles
{
param([string]$shareName = 'mystorage', [object]$storageContext, [string]$downloadFolder, [string]$path)
$content = get-azurestoragefile -sharename $sharename -Context $storagecontext -path $path| Get-AzureStorageFile

foreach($c in $content)
{
$Parentfolder = $c.uri.segments[($c.uri.segments.count -2)] -replace '/','\'

if(!(test-path $destination))
{mkdir $destination}
$p = $c.uri.LocalPath -replace "$($c.share.name)/" ,''
if(Get-AzureStorageFile -ShareName $c.share.name -path $p -Context $storageContext )
{
if($c.properties -is [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.File.FileDirectoryProperties])
{
$d = [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.File.CloudFileDirectory]::new($c.uri.AbsoluteUri)
#Get-AzureStorageFileContent -directory $d -ShareName $c.share.name -Destination "$destination$($c.name)" -Context $storageContext #-Path $p
$path = $d.Uri.LocalPath -replace "/$sharename/" , ""
$dest = $path -replace '/','\'
"$($c.name) is a directory -- getting $downloadfolder\$dest files"
if(!("$downloadfolder\$dest"))
{mkdir "$downloadfolder\$dest"}
Get-AzureFiles -shareName $shareName -storageContext $storageContext -path $path -downloadFolder "$downloadFolder\$dest"
}
elseif($c -is [Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Storage.File.CloudFile])
{
Write-Output "downloading --- $destination$($c.name)"
$destination = (($c.Uri.LocalPath -replace "/$sharename/" , "") -replace '/','\')
$dest = "$downloadFolder\$destination"
$dest
$de = $dest -replace $c.name, ""
if(!(test-path $de))
{
mkdir $de
}
if(!(test-path $dest))
{Get-AzureStorageFileContent -ShareName $c.share.name -Path $p -Destination $dest -Context $storageContext }# -WhatIf}
else
{
Write-Output "already downloaded --- $dest"
}
}
}
}
}

Now if we call the function with we’ll get a downloaded copy of all the folders from the location that you specify in azure to your local host:

get-AzureFiles -sharename “myShare” -storageContext $storageContext -downloadfolder “C:\temp\azurefiles”

There you go now you have your files in a directory from azure. Stay tuned for my next article where I’ll show you how to upload these same files to an Azure application (kudu).


I hope this helps someone
Until then keep Scripting
Thom


 

Finding 500,401 Errors in IIS logs

If you’ve  ever had to troubleshoot issues with IIS you’ll known that you are often drawn to looking at IIS Logs.    This post is about a script that I modified to search IIS logs for specific errors.

To begin with I found this article on StackOverFlow that got me started on this path.

To begin with we need to get the webadministration module so we can get the name of the website we want to get the log file for:


Import-Module WebAdministration

$site = Get-Item IIS:\Sites\$website
$id = $site.id
$logdir = "$($site.logfile.directory)\w3svc$id"

Now that we have the  The $logdir (log directory) we can now put the rest of the file name together by getting the date:


$File = "$logdir\u_ex$(((get-date).adddays(-$days)).ToString("yyMMdd")).log"
s

Assuming you are using a logfile per day the name of the log file is:

u_ex(yyMMdd)  which should be something similar to this: u_ex170824.log

Now that we have our log file we need to strip off unnecessary lines.  Specifically the First three lines that start with #S, #D, or #V which ends up being the Sofware, Version and Date items at the top of the log.

Then we’ll need to Build the columns based on the #fields value in the Log. That way each field in the results can be arranged into columns so we can sort our data based on what the item in the field is.

The additional column we’ll add is the name of the log file.


$Log = Get-Content $File | where {$_ -notLike "#[D,S-V]*" }

$Columns = (($Log[0].TrimEnd()) -replace "#Fields: ", "" -replace "-","" -replace "\(","" -replace "\)","").Split(" ")

$Columns += 'LogFile'

$Count = $Columns.Length

Now that we have the column titles now it’s time to filter out the log and only get the lines that have the value we want.  In my case I was searching for the Error code of 500.


$Rows = $Log | where {$_ -like "*$errorType 0 0*"}

Now that we have all the data we want in the row’s variable we can now construct a table of Columns and rows.


$IISLog = New-Object System.Data.DataTable "IISLog"

foreach ($Column in $Columns) {
$NewColumn = New-Object System.Data.DataColumn $Column, ([string])
$IISLog.Columns.Add($NewColumn)
}
# Loop Through each Row and add the Rows.
foreach ($Row in $Rows) {
$Row = $Row.Split(" ")
$AddRow = $IISLog.newrow()
for($i=0;$i -lt $Count; $i++) {
$ColumnName = $Columns[$i]
if($ColumnName -eq 'LogFile')
{$AddRow.$ColumnName = $file }
else {$AddRow.$ColumnName = $Row[$i]}
}
$IISLog.Rows.Add($AddRow)
}

$IISLog

Full function is below:


  function get-ErrorLogs
  {
  param($website = 'myWebSite', $errorType = '500',[int] $days =0)

    Import-Module WebAdministration

    $site = Get-Item IIS:\Sites\$website
    $id = $site.id
    $logdir = "$($site.logfile.directory)\w3svc$id"

    $File = "$logdir\u_ex$(((get-date).adddays(-$days)).ToString("yyMMdd")).log"
    $Log = Get-Content $File | where {$_ -notLike "#[D,S-V]*" }
    $Columns = (($Log[0].TrimEnd()) -replace "#Fields: ", "" -replace "-","" -replace "\(","" -replace "\)","").Split(" ")
    $Columns += 'LogFile'
    $Count = $Columns.Length
    $Rows = $Log | where {$_ -like "*$errorType 0 0*"}
    $IISLog = New-Object System.Data.DataTable "IISLog"
    foreach ($Column in $Columns) {
      $NewColumn = New-Object System.Data.DataColumn $Column, ([string])
      $IISLog.Columns.Add($NewColumn)
    }
    foreach ($Row in $Rows) {
      $Row = $Row.Split(" ")
      $AddRow = $IISLog.newrow()
      for($i=0;$i -lt $Count; $i++) {
        $ColumnName = $Columns[$i]
        if($ColumnName -eq 'LogFile')
        {$AddRow.$ColumnName = $file }
        else {$AddRow.$ColumnName = $Row[$i]}
      }
      $IISLog.Rows.Add($AddRow)
      }

    $IISLog
  }

Now that I have this in a full function I can just call it like this:

get-ErrorLogs -website “Website2” -errorType 500 -days 4

And get results similar to this:

500


I hope this helps someone
Until then keep Scripting
Thom


Just Hash It

I have been looking high and low for a good means to compare one variable to another and do it quickly.  In my search I found this article on Stack Over flow.  This led me to create a function that you could use for comparing one variable to another and getting a simple $true or $false answer if they are the same or not.   This article explains that concept

To start with I need to create a function block and pass two parameters. The item i’m using as a reference $reference and the item/variable I’ll use as the difference.


function Compare-Variables
{
param([string]$Reference, [string]$difference)

}

Using the example from the Post on Stack overflow I need to create an Object to hold the text encoding System.Text.UTF8Encoding  System.Security.Cryptography.MD5CryptoServiceProvider and a System.BitConverter.

To work backwards from the object to the comparison here is what takes place.

Step 1: Take the contents of each variable and turn them in to json – Using Converto-Json

$ref = $reference.CacheValue | ConvertTo-Json -Depth 100
$diff = $difference.CacheValue | ConvertTo-Json -Depth 100 

Now that I have it in a json object (so long as the object isn’t nested beyond 100) I’ll have the entire variable and it’s children objects.  This is in a variable called $ref and $diff.

Step 2: Since I have those in a variable I can get the bytes for the variable from Calling the UTF8 getBytes method.  Using a variable of test you’ll see that I get back a set of bytes for each character:


$utf8 = [System.Text.UTF8Encoding]::new()

$utf8.GetBytes('test')
116
101
115
116 

Step 3: Now that my variable is in bytes I can now compute a hash for those bytes with the System.Security.Cryptography.MD5CryptoServiceProvider


$md5 = [System.Security.Cryptography.MD5CryptoServiceProvider]::new()
$md5.ComputeHash($utf8.GetBytes('test'))
9
143
107
205
70
33
211
115
202
222
78
131
38
39
180
246 

Step 4: Now that I have my Computed hash I can convert this into a readable MD5 Sum with  System.BitConverter.

[System.BitConverter]::ToString($md5.ComputeHash($utf8.GetBytes('test')))
09-8F-6B-CD-46-21-D3-73-CA-DE-4E-83-26-27-B4-F6
 

Step 5: Now that I have that for both my variables I can simply ask if $ref -eq $diff and get an answer of $true or $false.

Completed Script is below:

function Compare-Variables
{
 param([object]$Reference, [object]$difference, [int]$objectDepth='2')
 $utf8 = [System.Text.UTF8Encoding]::new()
 $match = $false
 $md5 = [System.Security.Cryptography.MD5CryptoServiceProvider]::new()
 $ref = $reference | ConvertTo-Json -Depth $objectDepth
 $diff = $difference | ConvertTo-Json -Depth $objectDepth
 $hashref = [System.BitConverter]::ToString($md5.ComputeHash($utf8.GetBytes($ref)))
 $hashdif = [System.BitConverter]::ToString($md5.ComputeHash($utf8.GetBytes($diff)))
 $match = $hashref -eq $hashdif
 $hashref = $diff = $ref = $utf8 = $md5 = $null
 $match
}
 

Testing this Function:

Simple Test with just text: Now I can call this function and get a $true if the variables match and a false if they don’t.

$a = 'test'
$b = 'test'
Compare-Variables -Reference $a -difference $b
True
$a = 'test2'
$b = 'test'
Compare-Variables -Reference $a -difference $b
False

Test with an object from a Rest API: Now lets try something that we know will have a fair amount of data in it.  Githubs Rest Api:

 $a = 'test'
$b = 'test'
Compare-Variables -Reference $a -difference $b
True
$a = Invoke-RestMethod -uri http://api.github.com
$b = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri http://api.github.com
Compare-Variables -Reference $a -difference $b
True
$a = Invoke-RestMethod -Uri http://api.github.com/emojis
$b = Invoke-RestMethod -uri http://api.github.com
 Compare-Variables -Reference $a -difference $b
Flase

I hope this helps someone

Until then keep Scripting

Thom

 

 

 

What the Null??

Recently I’ve been working on some code for Querying schedules for SSRS.  I discovered the way that PowerShell passes a null to another function isn’t what the SSRS method expected.

So this started me on what the Heck is PowerShell null really set to?

Based on this blog article we can see I’m not the only one that has this question.   Cody Konior uncovered other ways to declare null:

If you test each of these against PowerShell’s null you get a false:

whattheNull

If we use some of the other comparisons maybe we’ll get to what $null is really set to:

PS ps:\> $b = $null
PS ps:\> [string]::IsNullOrWhiteSpace($b)
True
PS ps:\> [string]::IsNullOrWhiteSpace($b)
True
PS ps:\>

These evaluate the value you’d expect all $true.   I for sure don’t know the language as well as Kirk Munro (@Poshoholic).  He pointed me to a class that I used to compare to  PowerShell’s Null and it came up true:

[System.Management.Automation.Internal.AutomationNull]::Value

In a Blog post about a issue around null it’s explained this way by Jason Shirk (@lzybkr):

ShirkNull

Now I can test for PowerShell’s null, and this explains why $null is not Equal to the C# equivalent.

$Null -eq [System.Management.Automation.Internal.AutomationNull]::Value

True

Yet more detail on the why $Null is different in PowerShell (a more detailed example).

Moral of the story if you are calling a method that expects a $null make certain you get the Right $null for the Method you are calling.

 


I hope this helps someone

Until then keep Scripting

Thom

Creating a DataDriven Subscription from a file

In working with SSRS I found that if I wanted to do a delete of an RDL.  Problem is if I delete an RDL the Subscriptions are deleted as well.   So since I’ve put most all of my SSRS File management and Data source creation in Continuous Integration I needed a way to save off subscriptions before I attempted a delete.  I talk about how that is done in this post Saving SSRS Subscriptions to File.  This post will be about how I consume the saved off files and put the subscription in place in another environment.

If you’ve been following my other blog posts on SSRS you’ll know I’ve written about creating an SSRS Datasource. Testing an SSRS Datasource in each of these scripts I start with the following :  Reportservice2010.asmx Webservice to get to any functions that are needed to operate on SSRS. I assume you’ve read one of these articles and that you need to get a proxy to this.

Onto the method that we’ll call to recreate the DataDriven Subscription:

CreateDataDrivenSubscription A call to this method requires the following classes passed to it:

Path to where the report is : item

ExtensionSetttings – An ExtensionSettings object that contains a list of settings that are specific to the delivery extension.

DataRetrievalPlan – Type: ReportService2010.DataRetrievalPlan
A DataRetrievalPlan object that provides settings that are required to retrieve data from a delivery query. The DataRetrievalPlan object contains a reference to a DataSetDefinition object and a DataSourceDefinitionOrReference object.

description – Type: System.String A meaningful description that is displayed to users.

eventtype – Type: System.String
The type of event that triggers the data-driven subscription. The valid values are TimedSubscription or SnapshotUpdate

Matchdata – Type: System.String
The data that is associated with the specified EventType parameter. This parameter is used by an event to match the data-driven subscription with an event that has fired.

paramatervalueorfieldreference – Type: ReportService2010.ParameterValueOrFieldReference[]
An array of ParameterValueOrFieldReference objects that contains a list of parameters for the item.

Since I’m using a Powershell Class one of the first things I must make sure I do is have a proxy to the WebService I want to call. Everything else will fail if i haven’t done that first. Then I’ll read in my reportFiles that I want to operate on With Get-childitem.  I chose to use the xml export method.


$ssrsproxy = New-WebServiceProxy -Uri http://yourwebsite/yourreports/_vti_bin/ReportServer/ReportService2010.asmx -UseDefaultCredential -namespace 'SSRSProxy' -class 'ReportService2010'
$reportExportPath = 'C:\temp\reports3'
$reportFiles = Get-ChildItem $reportExportPath -Filter *.xml

Now that I have My reports that I want to operate on I can iterrate through each of these objects and rebuild the object and submit it to the new server.   So that I can change url’s from one server to another I Use a $source and $destination variable to assist.

Since each saved off report has 7 items in it we have to go through each item (object) in the xml and convert them back to the same type of object that the method call expects. So the first Object that we need to rebuild that is a little more complex is the $extensionsettings.  When you look at the extension settings they can have two other objects inside the extension setting. One of them is a ParameterFieldReference and the other is a Parametervalue.  So we have to test each of the names of the object properties to see what the name is so we know whether to build a ParameterFieldReference or a Parametervalue.


foreach($parameterField in $reportobject.extensionSettings.ParameterValues)
{
if($parameterfield.psobject.Properties.name[0] -eq 'ParameterName') #rebuild the object into an extenstion setting this one contains a parameter field reference
{
$a = [SSRSProxy.ParameterFieldReference]::new()
Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type ParameterField reference.'
$a.FieldAlias = $parameterfield.fieldalias
$a.ParameterName = $parameterfield.ParameterName
}
elseif($parameterfield.psobject.Properties.name[0] -eq 'Name') #rebuild the object into an extension settings object this one contains a param value
{
$a = [SSRSProxy.ParameterValue]::New()
Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type ParameterValue reference.'
$a.Label = $parameterField.Label
$a.Name = $parameterField.Name
$a.Value = $parameterField.Value
}
$paramvalues += $a
}
$extensionSettings.ParameterValues = [ssrsproxy.parametervalueorfieldreference[]]$paramvalues

Once we’ve built the extensionsettings we now need to rebuild the DataRetrievalPlan . The data retreival plan includes the reference to the new location for the DataSource.  this is where we use the source and destination to our advantage. This is done by settting the item on the dataretrieval plan to the datasource reference we wish to use using the object DataSourceReference


[SSRSProxy.DataRetrievalPlan]$DataRetrievalPlan = New-Object SSRSProxy.DataRetrievalPlan
 Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type DataRetrievalPlan reference.'

 $DataRetrievalPlan.DataSet = $reportobject.DataRetrievalPlan.DataSet

 $DataRetrievalPlan.DataSet = $reportobject.DataRetrievalPlan.DataSet
 [SSRSProxy.DataSourceReference]$dsReference = $reportobject.DataRetrievalPlan.Item
 $src = ([uri]$source).absoluteuri
 $dest = ([uri]$destination).absoluteuri
 $dsReference.Reference = (([uri]$dsReference.Reference).AbsoluteUri) -replace $src,$dest
 Write-Verbose "Datasource Reference $dsreference use the value for the datasource you want this data driven report to consume"
 $DataRetrievalPlan.Item = $dsReference

now the last few bits of information that need to be added is the ParameterValueorFieldReference and the report description, eventtype and match data.


$description = $reportobject.Description
 $eventtype = $reportobject.eventtype
 $matchdata = $reportobject.matchdata

$b = [Ssrsproxy.parameterfieldreference]::new()
 Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type parameterfieldreference reference.'
 $b.FieldAlias = $reportobject.parameters.fieldalias
 $b.ParameterName = $reportobject.parameters.ParameterName
 [SSRSProxy.ParameterValueOrFieldReference]$ParameterValueOrFieldReference = $b

Now that we have those set the last thing for us to do is to set the destination for the report where this should go.  Then we’ll call the method and hope we don’t hit an exception.


$itemPath = "$destination/$($reportobject.subscription.report)"
 try
 {
 Write-Verbose "Now that the object is re-constituted we can put this in the SSRS instance we wish to push it to"
 $ssrsproxy.CreateDataDrivenSubscription($itempath , $extensionsettings , $DataRetrievalPlan, $description, $eventtype, $matchdata, $ParameterValueOrFieldReference) 
 }
 Catch
 {
 "Error was $_"
 $line = $_.InvocationInfo.ScriptLineNumber
 "Error was in Line $line"
 }

 

Full script for this follows:

Write-Verbose " Destination for where the saved subscriptions will be pushed to"
$destination = 'http://yourwebsite/sites/datasourcetest/Shared%20Documents'
$source = 'http://yourwebsite/sites/Reports/Shared%20Documents'

$reportFiles = Get-ChildItem $reportExportPath -Filter *.xml
foreach($file in $reportFiles)
{
 $reportobject = Import-Clixml -path ($file.fullname)
 Write-Verbose "Create a object of type ExtensionSettings"
 $extensionSettings = New-Object -typename 'SSRSProxy.ExtensionSettings' 
 $extensionSettings.Extension = $reportobject.extensionSettings.Extension
 $paramvalues = @()
 foreach($parameterField in $reportobject.extensionSettings.ParameterValues)
 {
 if($parameterfield.psobject.Properties.name[0] -eq 'ParameterName') #rebuild the object into an extenstion setting this one contains a parameter field reference
 {
 $a = [SSRSProxy.ParameterFieldReference]::new()
 Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type ParameterField reference.'
 $a.FieldAlias = $parameterfield.fieldalias
 $a.ParameterName = $parameterfield.ParameterName
 }
 elseif($parameterfield.psobject.Properties.name[0] -eq 'Name') #rebuild the object into an extension settings object this one contains a param value
 {
 $a = [SSRSProxy.ParameterValue]::New()
 Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type ParameterValue reference.'
 $a.Label = $parameterField.Label
 $a.Name = $parameterField.Name
 $a.Value = $parameterField.Value
 }
 $paramvalues += $a
 }
 $extensionSettings.ParameterValues = [ssrsproxy.parametervalueorfieldreference[]]$paramvalues

 [SSRSProxy.DataRetrievalPlan]$DataRetrievalPlan = New-Object SSRSProxy.DataRetrievalPlan
 Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type DataRetrievalPlan reference.'

 $DataRetrievalPlan.DataSet = $reportobject.DataRetrievalPlan.DataSet
 [SSRSProxy.DataSourceReference]$dsReference = $reportobject.DataRetrievalPlan.Item
 $src = ([uri]$source).absoluteuri
 $dest = ([uri]$destination).absoluteuri
 $dsReference.Reference = (([uri]$dsReference.Reference).AbsoluteUri) -replace $src,$dest
 Write-Verbose "Datasource Reference $dsreference use the value for the datasource you want this data driven report to consume"
 $DataRetrievalPlan.Item = $dsReference
 $description = $reportobject.Description
 $eventtype = $reportobject.eventtype
 $matchdata = $reportobject.matchdata

 $b = [Ssrsproxy.parameterfieldreference]::new()
 Write-Verbose 'Create a object of type parameterfieldreference reference.'
 $b.FieldAlias = $reportobject.parameters.fieldalias
 $b.ParameterName = $reportobject.parameters.ParameterName
 [SSRSProxy.ParameterValueOrFieldReference]$ParameterValueOrFieldReference = $b

 $itemPath = "$destination/$($reportobject.subscription.report)"
 try
 {
 Write-Verbose "Now that the object is re-constituted we can put this in the SSRS instance we wish to push it to"
 $ssrsproxy.CreateDataDrivenSubscription($itempath , $extensionsettings , $DataRetrievalPlan, $description, $eventtype, $matchdata, $ParameterValueOrFieldReference) 
 }
 Catch
 {
 "Error was $_"
 $line = $_.InvocationInfo.ScriptLineNumber
 "Error was in Line $line"
 }
}

I hope this helps someone

Until then keep Scripting

Thom